Edmondo Bacci

Edmondo Bacci (July 21, 1913 - October 16, 1978) was an Italian painter born in Venice. He is best known for a series of paintings called Avvenimenti. Bacci studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia and was a member of the artist's Movimento Spaziale, a group founded by Lucio Fontana. He began exhibiting internationally in 1956. Bacci took part in the Venice Biennale several times, in 1958 his works were accorded a separate room. From the mid 1950s onwards he was promoted and supported by Peggy Guggenheim.The works of Bacci are represented inter alia in the collections of Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), Guggenheim Museum, Ca' Pesaro – International Gallery of Modern Art, Gallerie di Piazza Scala, and Fondazione Querini Stampalia.


Ithell Colquhoun - artist, writer, occultist

Ithell Colquhoun (9 October 1906 – 11 April 1988) was a British Surrealist painter and author. She was born in Shillong, Eastern Bengal and Assam, British India. From the 1930s to her death, her work was exhibited widely in Britain and Germany.Margaret Ithell Colquhoun was born in Shillong, Eastern Bengal and Assam, British India. Her parents were Henry Colquhoun, an assistant to the ambassador in Manipur, and his wife Georgia. Colquhoun was educated in Rodwell, near Weymouth, Dorset before attending Cheltenham Ladies' College. There she studied topics such as the cabbala and the occult.Colquhoun did take some art courses, but she was largely self-taught. Colquhoun studied for a period at the Slade School of Art in London, under Henry Tonks and Randolph Schwabe, before travelling to France in 1931. It was in Paris that she discovered surrealism and was especially influenced by the works of Salvador Dalí. Another influence on Colquhoun was the psychomorphological works of Roberto Matta and Onslow Ford. Her first one-woman exhibition of works was at Cheltenham Art Gallery in 1936. Soon after, she joined the political group, Artists' International Association. She took part in the 1939 exhibition Living Art in England on an independent basis, but that same year she met Breton in Paris and joined the English surrealist group. By 1939, Colquhoun had joined the English Surrealist Group and in June she and Rowland Penrose showed their works in a joint exhibition at Mayor Gallery. There they created a scandal by asking a vagrant to sit in the window.

 Colquhoun's early works included a series of enlarged images of flora, occupying the full canvas and painted almost photographically. By the late 1930s, she had painted two significant pieces; Scylla in 1938, whose joined rocks in the water creates the impression of a "feminine opening" whilst also showing phallic imagery, and Rivières tièdes which shows liquids flowing from a Mediterranean church.
In the 1940s, Colquhoun's works were experiments to explore consciousness and the subconscious. She did this by using recognised methods such as decalcomania, fumage, frottage and collage. Colquhoun went further, developing new techniques such as superautomatism, stillomanay, parsemage, and entoptic graphomania writing about them in her article The mantic stain.
Three works which stand out during the 1940s are The Pine Family, which deals with dismemberment and castration, A Visitation which shows a flat heart shape with multicoloured beams of light and Dreaming Leaps, a homage to Sonia Araquistain.Colquhoun did not define herself as a Surrealist artist, as she only too part in a single Surrealist exhibit. Instead she considered herself "independent"Wikipedia

Jazz Photographer Herman Leonard

Herman Leonard (March 6, 1923, in Allentown, Pennsylvania – August 14, 2010, in Los Angeles, California) was an American photographer known for his unique images of jazz icons.

 "President Bill Clinton has called Herman Leonard, "The greatest jazz photographer in the history of the genre." Born March 6, 1923 and raised in Allentown, PA, at age 9, Herman Leonard witnessed an image being developed in his brother's darkroom and became enthralled with the magic of photography. As the official photographer for his high school, Herman quickly learned that with a camera in hand, he had an "open sesame" to people and events, that his shyness might have prevented him from experiencing. When it came time for college, Herman chose Ohio University, “The only university at the time that could offer me a degree in Photography”. His college studies were interrupted from 1943-1945, as Herman joined the United States Army and was sent to Burma with the 13th Mountain Medical Battalion. He had hoped to be a field photographer, but was ironically assigned as a combat anesthetist when he failed a test which required him to identify the chemical ingredients of film developer. After the war, Herman returned to college and graduated in 1947 with a Bachelor of Fine Arts Degree.

Herman's most influential teacher was master portrait photographer, Yousuf Karsh, with whom Herman spent a year as an apprentice to in Ottawa, Canada from 1947-1948. Herman assisted Karsh in the darkroom and with photographic sittings including, Martha Graham, Harry Truman, and Albert Einstein.

 In 1948, Herman's passion for jazz brought him to New York City's Greenwich Village, where he set up a small studio at 220 Sullivan Street. He made his way into the swinging clubs of Broadway, 52nd Street and Harlem. With the camera as his free ticket, he offered to shoot publicity stills of the jazz artists for admission. While shooting at The Royal Roost and Birdland, he photographed and developed friendships with some of the greats of jazz history, including Miles Davis, Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Lena Horne, Billie Holiday, Duke Ellington and many more. Many of his photos eventually ended up on the covers of jazz albums while working for producer Norman Granz, as well as in Downbeat and Metronome magazines.In 1956 Leonard was chosen by Marlon Brando to be his personal photographer for an extensive research trip throughout the Far East. At the conclusion of the trip, Leonard had been bitten by the travel bug and headed for Paris, France. He continued to photograph the prolific jazz scene, with many of the American jazz artists now living there. Working for French recording label Barclay Records, he also photographed many French recording artists such as Charles Aznavour, Jacques Brel, Eddy Mitchell and Johnny Hallyday. He also became the European photographer for Playboy Magazine. Throughout the 1960’s and 70’s his work focused primarily on fashion and advertising at his studio in Paris’ chic Neuilly-sur-Seine neighborhood.

 Herman's jazz photographs, now collector's items, are a unique record of the jazz scene of the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s. The Smithsonian claims 155 original Herman Leonard photographic prints in its permanent collection, where they are considered as essential to American music history as Benny Goodman's clarinet or Louis Armstrong's horn. Herman's work is also represented in numerous public collections including, Jazz at Lincoln Center, NY, the Ogden Museum of Southern Art, LA, and the George Eastman House, NY, as well as the private collections of Sir Elton John, Bruce Bernard, His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand and President Bill Clinton.

The Herman Leonard Jazz Archive was established in 2007 and in 2008 was awarded a GRAMMY® Foundation grant for archiving and preservation. This project was successful in digitally archiving Leonard's vast catalog of over 35,000 negatives, comprising a visual documentation of America's original art form, and preserving it for future generations. Later in 2008, Herman was presented with the coveted Lucie Award for Portraiture from his dear friend Tony Bennett at an awards ceremony at Lincoln Center in NYC. Tony remarked, "He is my favorite artist of any technique, he's a painter with a camera." Herman also appeared on NBC's The Today Show, and in a BBC documentary SAVING JAZZ, which chronicled his experiences following Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans. Leonard returned to his alma mater of Ohio University as the commencement speaker for the graduating class of 2009, and was presented with an Honorary Doctorate.


Tachisme Hans Hartung

Hans Hartung (21 September 1904 – 7 December 1989) was a German-French painter, known for his gestural abstract style. He was also a decorated World War II veteran of the French Foreign Legion.Hartung was born in Leipzig, Germany into an artistic family. He developed an early appreciation of Rembrandt, German painters such as Lovis Corinth, and the Expressionists Oskar Kokoschka and Emil Nolde. In 1924 he enrolled in Leipzig University, where he studied philosophy and art history.He subsequently studied at the Fine Arts academy of Dresden, where he copied the paintings of the masters. The modern French and Spanish works he saw in 1926 at the Internationale Kunstausstellung in Dresden were a revelation to him, and he decided that he would leave his native country to prevent succumbing to provincialism. Consequently, after a bicycle trip through Italy, he moved to Paris.

In Paris, Hartung had little contact with other artists, and copied the works of old and modern masters. He visited the south of France, where the landscape inspired him to a close study of the works of Cézanne, and he developed a great interest in principles of harmony and proportion such as the golden section. In 1928 he visited Munich where he studied painting technique with Max Doerner. In 1929 he married the artist Anna-Eva Bergman and established himself in the French towns of Leucate, and then in the Spanish Balearic Islands, eventually settling in Minorca. He exhibited for the first time in 1931 in Dresden.The death of his father in 1932 severed Hartung's last bonds with Germany. He was rejected from Nazi Germany on account of being a 'degenerate', because his painting style was associated with Cubism – an art movement incompatible with Nazi Germany's ideals. In 1935 when he attempted to sell paintings while visiting Berlin, the police tried to arrest him. He was able to flee the country with the help of his friend Christian Zervos.
After he returned to Paris as a refugee, Hartung and his wife divorced, and he became depressed. His paintings were becoming more abstract and did not sell well. His friends tried to help him with his financial difficulties, and the sculptor Julio González offered him the use of his studio. In 1939 Hartung married González’s daughter Roberta.

In December 1939, he became a member of the French Foreign Legion. He was closely followed by the Gestapo and arrested for seven months by the French police. After they learned he was a painter, he was put in a red cell in an attempt to disturb his vision. After being released he rejoined the Legion to fight in North Africa, losing a leg in a battle near Belfort. He earned French citizenship in 1945, and was awarded the Croix de Guerre.In 1947 in Paris he had his first solo exhibition. By the late 1950s he had achieved recognition for his gestural paintings, which were nearly monochromatic and characterized by configurations of long rhythmical brushstrokes or scratches. In 1960 he was awarded the International Grand Prix for painting at the Venice Biennale.[2]
Hartung's freewheeling abstract paintings set influential precedents for many younger American painters of the sixties, making him an important forerunner of American Lyrical Abstraction of the 1960s and 1970s. He was featured in the 1963 film documentary "School of Paris: (5 Artists at Work)" by American filmmaker Warren Forma.
In 1957, Hartung and Anna-Eva Bergman remarried. He died on 7 December 1989, in Antibes, France.Wikipedia

Geometric abstraction Rudolf Bauer

"Rudolf Bauer, in full Alexander Georg Rudolf Bauer (born February 11, 1889, Lindenwald, Germany (now in Poland)—died November 28, 1953, Deal, New Jersey, U.S.), German-born abstract artist whose role in the conception and founding of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum was buried for some 60 years after he had a falling-out with Guggenheim. As a result of the same incident, Bauer’s own colourful geometric paintings also remained largely out of the public eye until the early 21st century.
Bauer’s interest in art began at an early age. He left home in 1905, without the support of his family, and enrolled in the Academy of Fine Arts, Berlin-Charlottenburg. Losing interest in academic training, he left school and supported himself by drawing political cartoons and caricatures that he sold to magazines and newspapers. The small income he earned in this fashion allowed him to pursue his own art. He experimented with both representational and nonrepresentational modes of expression, including Impressionism and Expressionism. In 1915 he joined Der Sturm, a circle of avant-garde artists such as Wassily Kandinsky who were affiliated with Herwarth Walden’s Galerie Der Sturm. Bauer began exhibiting frequently with them, teaching in Walden’s Sturmschule and writing for his magazine. It was at that gallery in 1916 that Bauer met Hilla Rebay, a German baroness and artist. Rebay immediately became the greatest champion of his work, and the two began a nearly three-decade-long on-and-off relationship.

In 1917, 1918, and 1920 Bauer had solo exhibitions at Galerie Der Sturm. During that time he also cofounded two avant-garde artists’ groups, the Novembergruppe (1918) and, with Rebay and artist Otto Nebel, Die Krater (1920). The latter was formed out of the conviction that painting should be nonrepresentational and the visual expression of the artistic experience. In 1920 Bauer’s first works appeared in America by way of artist and collector Katherine Dreier, who introduced Americans to many of Europe’s finest avant-garde artists. She exhibited his work several times with her arts organization, Société Anonyme (founded 1920). Bauer painted, exhibited, and wrote prolifically throughout the 1920s. His essay “"Manifesto of Painting"” was the central text of the catalog for Der Sturm’s 100th exhibition in 1921. In 1927 Bauer had a solo exhibition at the Royal Palace in Berlin. That same year Rebay immigrated to the United States, taking with her examples of work by her protégé. She found an American patron for Bauer in Solomon Guggenheim, who was immediately taken with Bauer’s work. Rebay also began advising Guggenheim to establish a museum for nonobjective art, suggesting Bauer as the collection’s anchor.
Britannica Stories

Bauer’s career was flourishing at home and abroad. With money he earned from the sale of works to Guggenheim, Bauer in 1930 opened a small museum, Das Geistreich (“The Realm of the Spirit”), in which to exhibit his own work as well as that of Kandinsky. Bauer’s work in that period became more sharply focused on geometric forms, circles in particular, beginning with such paintings as Orange Accent (1929–31) and Tetraptychon II (1930). In 1933 and 1934 he was included in exhibitions at New York’s Museum of Modern Art. He then had a solo exhibition at the Arts Club of Chicago in 1936 and another one at the Jeu de Paume in Paris in 1937. Meanwhile, Rebay and Guggenheim were taking steps toward making the museum and had established the Guggenheim Foundation, and Guggenheim had hired Rebay as the chief curator of his art collection. Bauer’s ideas were intrinsic to the design of the museum. According to correspondence between Bauer and Rebay, it was Bauer’s idea to use ramps rather than stairs between floors so that the art on display could be viewed without interruption. In 1936 Bauer—along with Paul Klee, Marc Chagall, Albert Gleizes, and Robert Delaunay, among others—was included in the collection’s first exhibition, held at the Gibbes Memorial Art Gallery in Charleston, South Carolina.

As tensions in Germany increased and the Nazi Party gained broader control throughout Europe, Bauer began to recognize his precarious situation as an abstract artist in Berlin. In 1937 his museum was shut down, and in 1938 the Nazis labeled his work “degenerate” and arrested him. He was liberated when Rebay traveled to Berlin from the U.S. and, using funds from Guggenheim, successfully negotiated his release. Bauer left Berlin for the U.S. in 1939, the year in which the first iteration of the Guggenheim institution, called the Museum of Non-Objective Painting, opened on East 54th Street in Manhattan. Bauer was included in the museum’s first exhibition in its new home, “"Art of Tomorrow,"” and his 1933 painting Invention (Composition 31) was used on the cover of the exhibition’s catalog.
When Bauer arrived in the U.S. in 1939, he joined Rebay in her home in Greens Farms, Connecticut. After several months Guggenheim offered him a mansion near the ocean in Deal, New Jersey, a car, a maid, and a yearly stipend; in exchange Guggenheim would have ownership over those works already in his possession and of all works Bauer would create during the rest of his life. Speaking very little English and under pressure from Rebay to sign the contract, Bauer misunderstood many of its terms. Soon after signing it, when he had time to translate the contract in detail, Bauer realized that he had signed away his life’s work and would not actually own any of the luxuries that Guggenheim was providing for him. In anger, Bauer backed out of the agreement by never painting or drawing again (though, according to at least one source, a sizeable trove of drawings and paintings was found in his house after his death).

Bauer and Rebay finally, and unamicably, severed their relationship in 1944, the year that Bauer married his former maid. The artist lived out his life in solitude and obscurity, dying of cancer before the Guggenheim Museum opened its doors to the public in 1959 (with an exhibition that did not include a single work by him). In the end, his works were relegated to storage in the museum for many years. Guggenheim’s nephew, Harry, took over as supervisor for the museum project when his uncle passed away in 1949. The nephew had less regard for nonobjective art and steered the museum in other directions, including away from the influence of Rebay, who was forced to resign in 1952.Bauer’s work rarely surfaced in Guggenheim exhibitions over the following four decades, though he was included in group (and a handful of solo) exhibitions in Europe and the U.S. over those years. His role in the creation of the Guggenheim Museum was buried in correspondence, which came to light only with the Guggenheim’s 2005 exhibition “"Art of Tomorrow: Hilla Rebay and Solomon R. Guggenheim."” Since then Bauer has been newly recognized as an important player in the nonobjective art movement as well as in the making of one of the world’s most important collections devoted to it. In 2014, during the 75th anniversary year of the “"Art of Tomorrow"” exhibition, Bauer was the subject of a play—Bauer by Lauren Gunderson—and of two exhibitions, at Sotheby’s and at the German Consulate in New York City."(britannica.com)